Calluses (corns, warts)
A callus is a thickening of the outer layer of the skin.\\there are two kinds.
1. friction/ pressure calluses – caused by friction on the areas subjected to excess weight and /or rubbing by an external factor.
2. Viral warts – caused by the HPV virus, spreads in areas of excess humidity, such as communal showers, swimming pools, mikve, dressing rooms.

The celluses/warts can be removed by various methods, e.g: lasers, Nitrogen, etc.

A blister is formed when the skin of the foot rubs against another surface (e.g. shoes, especially on the heels or the sides of the toes). The friction causes separation of the outer layer of the skin, and the space between it and the inner layer fills rapidly with liquid. This is the body's way of producing a 'protective cushion' at the point of friction. When the blister ' bursts', infection. May set in/
  Hallux valgus
Deformation of the toe, produced over a period of years.
Apart from the esthetic defect, this may cause pain, difficulty in fitting shoes, erosion of the fatty layer, and more.
There exist solutions to provide relief and improve the quality of life, and surgery is not always indicated.
    Tough skin
Tough skin is caused by excess weight and\or friction between the foot and the shoe. Besides removing it, care should be taken to prevent recurrence by removing the offending cause.
  Gait problems
Wearing out of shoes, painful feet and heels and low back pain may indicate gait problems, such as: Flat feet – fallen arches, dislocation of the ankle, stress fractures ,knee pain
Painful and abnormal reaction of capillaries in the skin exposed to very low temperatures. It usually appears some hours after exposure to cold, damp weather. It is manifested on the skin in the form of small, itchy, red spots. It is very painful and the pain increases as the colour changes to blue.

Preventive measures:
1. Feet must be kept adequately warm to prevent frostbite.
2. Trousers, woolen socks/tights, high boots, legwarmers, should be worn.
3. smoking is known to interfere with blood flow in the capillaries, and increases the risk of developing frostbite.
4. Diabetics and people suffering from circulatory insufficiency should see a podiatrist immediately.
5. well-padded shoes, personally fitted, may prevent frostbite.

Plantar fasciitis (inflammation of the ligaments).
Frictional inflammation of the ligaments of the sole of the foot may be caused by over stretching during walking, by excess weight, etc.
Following upon diagnosis, fitting of appropriate insoles will solve the problem.
  Infiammation of the Achilles tendon
Caused by shortening, or by rubbing against a shoe or the bone. Appropriate exercise and stabilization can solve the problem.
Bony protuberance on the heel bone (calcaneus) resulting from friction at the point of contact of the ligaments on the sole of the foot and of the heel.
During the course of pregnancy. A woman's body undergoes many changes. As a result there is tendency to forget the feet until they remind one of their presence. From mid-pregnancy until the end. The feet bear a considerable weight, and may swell: in some cases the tendons slacken somewhat as a result of the release of the hormone relaxin. These changes may cause an increase in shoe size by a half size, and also cause pain.
Swollen legs should be raised.
Legs should not be crossed.
Sitting in bath of warm water may reduce swelling.
Some women wear elasticized stocking – these should be worn from early morning.
Avoid prolonged standing.
Wear cornfortable shoes with good support, preferably without heels.
Try to avoid safty food – salt causes edema.
Do not wear tight sock that interfere with circulation to the heel.

Children (from infancy to age 18):
Foot care is extremely important for children up to puberty, because it may affect their health, their comfort and their quality of life.
Badly-fitted shoes or socks can easily mold the developing foot, and may cause.

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